Columbidae

De WikiLingua.net

Colomes
Columba livia domestica.
Columba livia domestica.
Classificació científica
Regne: Animalia
Tall: Cordado
Classe: Aus
Ordre: Columbiformes
Família: Columbidae
Subfamilias

Es coneix com colomes a les, aproximadament, 308 espècies d'aus de la família Columbidae, dintre de l'ordre Columbiformes. Són parents de l'extint Dodo.

Les colomes són robustas quant al seu cos i coll, mentre el bec és prim i curt amb ceres carnosas.

Els nius, normalment febles, són fets de ramitas, i els dos ous blancs són incubados per ambdós sexes. Les colomes s'alimenten de llavors i fruits. Alimenten als seus pichones amb una secreció denominada llet del buche que se secreta per cèl·lules especials. Ambdós sexes produeixen aquesta substància molt nutritiva per a alimentar al jove. Les colomes joves es denominen pichones i les persones que crían colomes es denominen Columbofilos.

Aquesta família es distribueix per tot el món, és cosmopolita, la major diversitat d'espècies la té l'ecorregión o ecozona Indomalaya i l'ecozona d'Australasia .


Taula de continguts

[editar] Convivència amb el ser humà

Aquest au s'ha sabut adaptar a l'entorn urbà, per exemple a l'estar a prop de persones ancianes que els donin menjada, fins a tal punt que s'ha convertit en un tremend problema en ciutats com Venècia, on han hagut de prendre mesures perquè la corrosión provocada per les defecaciones d'aquest animal estan deteriorant greument el patrimoni artístic i arquitectònic de dita ciutat.

[editar] Ilusionismo

L'espècie Tórtola turca és la més utilitzada en actes d'ilusionismo pel seu gran docilidad, principalment del mascle.

[editar] Simbolisme

La coloma és també un animal amb significat simbòlic. En la Bíblia es relata que Noé va deixar anar una coloma des de l'arca després del Diluvio per a intentar trobar terra ferma i que aquesta va tornar amb una branca d'olivera en el bec. A més, en el Nou Testament, l'Esperit Sant descendeix en forma de coloma sobre Jesucrist en el moment en què aquest és batejat.

Actualment, la representació d'una coloma blanca amb una branca d'olivera en el bec és un símbol de pau i pureza en les societats occidentals.

En política, als polítics que defensen solucions pacífiques als problemes se'ls qualifica de colomes, mentre que els quals advoquen per una actuació agressiva se'ls denomina falcons.

[editar] Taxonomía

[editar] Subfamilia Columbinae

Gènere Columba Colomes típiques

  • Columba livia (Paloma bravía)
  • Columba oenas (Paloma zurita)
  • Columba trocaz (Paloma de Madeira)
  • Columba bollii (Paloma turqué)
  • Columba junoniae (Paloma rabiche)
  • Columba leucocephala (Paloma de corona blanca)
  • Columba flavirostris (Paloma de bec vermell)
  • Columba fasciata (Paloma encinera)
  • Columba rupestris (Paloma rupestre)
  • Columba leuconota (Paloma nival)
  • Columba guinea (Paloma de Guinea)
  • Columba albitorques (Paloma etíop)
  • Columba eversmanni (Paloma de Turquestán)
  • Columba oliviae (Paloma somalí)
  • Columba palumbus (Paloma torcaz)
  • Columba unicincta (Paloma del Congo)
  • Columba arquatrix (Paloma d'ulls grocs)
  • Columba sjostedti (Paloma de Camerun)
  • Columba thomensis (Paloma de Sant Vaig prendre)
  • Columba polleni (Paloma de les Comoras)
  • Columba hodgsonii (Paloma d'Hodgson)
  • Columba albinucha (Paloma de clatell blanc)
  • Columba pulchricollis (Paloma fosca)
  • Columba elphinstonii (Paloma de Nilgiris)
    Paloma.
    Paloma.
  • Sri Lanka Wood-pigeon, Columba torringtoni
  • Pale-capped Pigeon, Columba punicea
  • Silvery Pigeon, Columba argentina (possibly extinct)
  • Andaman Wood-pigeon, Columba palumboides
  • Japanese Wood-pigeon, Columba janthina
  • Bonin Wood-pigeon, Columba versicolor (extinct)
  • Ryukyu Wood-pigeon, Columba jouyi (extinct)
  • Metallic Pigeon or White-throated Pigeon, Columba vitiensis
  • White-headed Pigeon, Columba leucomela
  • Yellow-legged Pigeon, Columba pallidiceps
  • White-crowned Pigeon, Columba leucocephala
  • Scaly-naped Pigeon, Columba squamosa
  • Scaled Pigeon, Columba speciosa
  • Picazuro Pigeon, Columba picazuro
  • Bare-eyed Pigeon, Columba corensis
  • Spot-winged Pigeon, Columba maculosa
  • Band-tailed Pigeon, Columba fasciata
  • Chilean Pigeon, Columba araucana
  • Columba caribaea
  • Columba cayennensis
  • Columba flavirostris
  • Columba oenops
  • Columba inornata
  • Columba plumbea
  • Columba subvinacea
  • Columba nigrirostris
  • Columba goodsoni
  • Columba delegorguei
  • Columba iriditorques
  • Columba malherbii
  • Columba larvata
  • Columba simplex
Tórtola de Collar, Streptopelia risoria, nativa del Sur de África.
Tórtola de Collaret, Streptopelia risoria, nativa del Sud d'Àfrica.

Gènere Streptopelia

  • Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis - might belong to Stigmatopelia
  • Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis - might also belong to Stigmatopelia
  • Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto
  • Barbary Dove Streptopelia risoria (domesticated; taxonomic status doubtful)
  • African Collared Dove, Streptopelia roseogrisea
  • Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur
  • Oriental Turtle Dove Streptopelia orientalis
  • Dusky Turtle Dove, Streptopelia lugens
  • Adamawa Turtle Dove, Streptopelia hypopyrrha
  • Island Collared Dove, Streptopelia bitorquata
  • White-winged Collared Dove, Streptopelia reichenowi
  • African Mourning Dove, Streptopelia decipiens
  • Xarxa-eyed Dove, Streptopelia semitorquata
  • Ring-necked Dove, Streptopelia capicola
  • Vinaceous Dove, Streptopelia vinacea
  • Xarxa Turtle Dove, Streptopelia tranquebarica
  • Madagascar Turtle Dove, Streptopelia picturata - might belong to Nesoenas
  • Pink Pigeon, Streptopelia mayeri - might belong to Nesoenas

Gènere Macropygia

  • Escombreu Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia unchall
  • Slender-billed Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia amboinensis
  • Brown Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia phasianella
  • Dusky Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia magna
  • Andaman Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia rufipennis
  • Philippine Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia tenuirostris
  • Ruddy Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia emiliana
  • Black-billed Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia nigrirostris
  • Mackinlay's Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia mackinlayi
  • Little Cuckoo-dove, Macropygia ruficeps

Gènere Reinwardtoena

  • Great Cuckoo-dove, Reinwardtoena reinwardtii
  • Pied Cuckoo-dove, Reinwardtoena browni
  • Crested Cuckoo-dove, Reinwardtoena crassirostris

Gènere Turacoena

  • White-faced Cuckoo-dove, Turacoena manadensis
  • Black Cuckoo-dove, Turacoena modesta

Gènere Turtur

  • Emerald-spotted Wood Dove, Turtur chalcospilos
  • Black-billed Wood Dove, Turtur abyssinicus
  • Blue-spotted Wood Dove, Turtur afer
  • Tambourine Dove, Turtur tympanistria
  • Blue-headed Wood Dove, Turtur brehmeri

Gènere Oena

  • Namaqua Dove, Oena capensis

Gènere Chalcophaps

  • Emerald Dove, Chalcophaps indica
  • Stephan's Dove, Chalcophaps stephani
Paloma esmeralda,  Chalcophaps indica, nativa del sur tropical de Asia y Australia.
Paloma esmeralda, Chalcophaps indica, nativa del sud tropical d'Àsia i Austràlia.

Gènere Henicophaps

  • New Guinea Bronzewing, Henicophaps albifrons
  • New Britain Bronzewing, Henicophaps foersteri

Gènere Phaps, bronzewing pigeons

  • Common Bronzewing, Phaps chalcoptera
  • Brush Bronzewing, Phaps elegans
  • Flock Bronzewing, Phaps histrionica

Gènere Ocyphaps

  • Crested Pigeon, Ocyphaps lophotes

Gènere Geophaps

  • Spinifex Pigeon, Geophaps plumifera
  • Squatter Pigeon, Geophaps scripta
  • Partridge Pigeon, Geophaps smithii

Gènere Petrophassa, rock pigeons

  • Chestnut-quilled Rock Pigeon, Petrophassa rufipennis
  • White-quilled Rock Pigeon, Petrophassa albipennis

Gènere Geopelia

  • Diamond Dove, Geopelia cuneata
  • Zebra Dove, Geopelia striata
  • Peaceful Dove, Geopelia plaguda
  • Escombreu Dove, Geopelia maugei
  • Bar-shouldered Dove, Geopelia humeralis

Gènere Leucosarcia

  • Paloma Wonga, Leucosarcia melanoleuca


Gènere Zenaida

Gènere Ectopistes

  • Passenger Pigeon Ectopistes migratorius (extinct)

Gènere Columbina Ground Doves

  • Common Ground Dove, Columbina passerina
  • Plain-breasted Ground Dove, Columbina minuta
  • Ecuadorian Ground Dove, Columbina buckleyi
  • Ruddy Ground Dove, Columbina talpacoti
  • Picui Dove, Columbina picui
  • Croaking Ground Dove, Columbina cruziana
  • Blue-eyed Ground Dove, Columbina cyanopis

Gènere Claravis

  • Blue Ground Dove, Claravis pretiosa
  • Purple-winged Ground Dove, Claravis godefrida
  • Maroon-chested Ground Dove, Claravis mondetoura

Gènere Metropelia

  • Bare-faced Ground Dove, Metriopelia ceciliae
  • Bru's Ground Dove, Metriopelia morenoi
  • Black-winged Ground Dove, Metriopelia melanoptera
  • Golden-spotted Ground Dove, Metriopelia aymara

Gènere Scardafella

  • Inca Dove, Scardafella inca
  • Scaled Dove, Scardafella squammata

Gènere Uropelia

  • Long-tailed Ground Dove, Uropelia campestris

Gènere Leptotila

  • White-tipped Dove, Leptotila verreauxi
  • White-faced Dove, Leptotila megalura
  • Grey-fronted Dove, Leptotila rufaxilla
  • Grey-headed Dove, Leptotila plumbeiceps
  • Pallid Dove, Leptotila pallida
  • Brown-backed Dove, Leptotila battyi
  • Grenada Dove, Leptotila wellsi
  • Caribbean Dove, Leptotila jamaicensis
  • Grey-chested Dove, Leptotila cassini
  • Ochre-bellied Dove, Leptotila ochraceiventris
  • Tolima Dove, Leptotila conoveri

Gènere Geotrygon, quail-doves

  • Purplish-backed Quail-dove, Geotrygon lawrencii
  • Veracruz Quail-dove, Geotrygon carrikeri
  • Costa Rica Quail-dove, Geotrygon costaricensis
  • Russet-crowned Quail-dove, Geotrygon goldmani
  • Sapphire Quail-dove, Geotrygon saphirina
  • Grey-headed Quail-dove, Geotrygon caniceps
  • Crested Quail-dove, Geotrygon versicolor
  • Rufous-breasted Quail-dove, Geotrygon chiriquensis
  • Olive-backed Quail-dove, Geotrygon veraguensis
  • White-faced Quail-dove, Geotrygon albifacies
  • Lined Quail-dove, Geotrygon linearis
  • White-throated Quail-dove, Geotrygon frenata
  • Key West Quail-dove, Geotrygon chrysia
  • Bridled Quail-dove, Geotrygon mystacea
  • Violaceous Quail-dove, Geotrygon violacea
  • Ruddy Quail-dove, Geotrygon montana

Gènere Starnoenas

  • Blue-headed Quail Dove, Starnoenas cyanocephala

Gènere Caloenas

  • Nicobar Pigeon, Caloenas nicobarica

Gènere Gallicolumba

  • Luzon Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica
  • Mindanao Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba crinigera (criniger is a spelling error in the description)
  • Mindoro Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba platenae
  • Negres Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba keayi
  • Sulu Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba menagei
  • Cinnamon Ground Dove, Gallicolumba rufigula
  • Sulawesi Ground Dove, Gallicolumba tristigmata
  • White-bibbed Ground Dove, Gallicolumba jobiensis
  • Caroline Ground Dove, Gallicolumba kubaryi
  • Polynesian Ground Dove, Gallicolumba erythroptera
  • White-throated Ground Dove, Gallicolumba xanthonura
  • Friendly Ground Dove, Gallicolumba stairi
  • Tanna Ground Dove, Gallicolumba ferruginea (extinct)
  • Santa Creu Ground Dove, Gallicolumba sanctaecrucis
  • Thick-billed Ground Dove, Gallicolumba salamonis (extinct)
  • Marqueses Ground Dove, Gallicolumba rubescens
  • Bronze Ground Dove, Gallicolumba beccarii
  • Palau Ground Dove, Gallicolumba canifrons
  • Wetar Ground Dove, Gallicolumba hoedtii
  • Norfolk Island Ground Dove, Gallicolumba norfolciensis (extincto)

Gènere Trugon

  • Thick-billed Ground Pigeon, Trugon terrestris

Gènere Microgoura

  • Choiseul Pigeon, Microgoura meeki (probably extinct)

[editar] Subfamilia Otidiphabinae

Gènere Otidiphaps

[editar] Subfamilia Gourinae

Pichon coronado de victoria en un zoologico

Gènere Goura Colomes coronades

[editar] Subfamilia Didunculinae

Gènere Didunculus

  • Didunculus strigirostris, Tooth-billed Pigeon,

[editar] Subfamilia Treroninae

Gènere Phapitreron

  • White-eared Brown Dove, Phapitreron leucotis
  • Amethyst Brown Dove, Phapitreron amethystina
  • Dark-eared Brown Dove, Phapitreron cinereiceps

Gènere Treron green pigeons

  • Cinnamon-headed Green Pigeon, Treron fulvicollis
  • Little Green Pigeon, Treron olax
  • Pink-necked Green Pigeon, Treron vernans
  • Orange-breasted Green Pigeon, Treron bicincta
  • Pompadour Green Pigeon, Treron pompadora
  • Thick-billed Green Pigeon, Treron curvirostra
  • Grey-cheeked Green Pigeon, Treron griseicauda
  • Sumba Green Pigeon, Treron teysmannii
  • Flors Green Pigeon, Treron floris
  • Timor Green Pigeon, Treron psittacea
  • Large Green Pigeon, Treron capellei
  • Yellow-footed Green Pigeon, Treron phoenicoptera
  • Bruce's Green Pigeon, Treron waalia
  • Madagascar Green Pigeon, Treron australis
  • African Green Pigeon, Treron calba
  • Pemba Green Pigeon, Treron pembaensis
  • Sao Prengui Green Pigeon, Treron sanctithomae
  • Pin-tailed Green Pigeon, Treron apicauda
  • Sumatran Green Pigeon, Treron oxyura
  • Yellow-vented Green Pigeon, Treron seimundi
  • Wedge-tailed Green Pigeon, Treron sphenura
  • White-bellied Green Pigeon, Treron sieboldii
  • Whistling Green Pigeon, Treron formosae

Gènere Ptilinopus, fruit doves

  • Black-backed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus cinctus
  • Black-banded Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus alligator
  • Xarxa-naped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus dohertyi
  • Pink-headed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus porphyreus
  • Flame-breasted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus marchei
  • Cream-bellied Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus merrilli
  • Yellow-breasted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus occipitalis
  • Xarxa-eared Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus fischeri
  • Jambu Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus jambu
  • Maroon-chinned Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus subgularis
  • Black-chinned Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus leclancheri
  • Scarlet-breasted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus bernsteinii
  • Wompoo Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus magnificus
  • Pink-spotted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus perlatus
  • Ornate Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus ornatus
  • Tanna Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus tannensis
  • Orange-fronted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus aurantiifrons
  • Wallace's Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus wallacii
  • Superb Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus superbus
  • Many-coloured Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus perousii
  • Purple-capped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus porphyraceus
  • Palau Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus pelewensis
  • Rarotonga Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus rarotongensis
  • Mariana Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus roseicapilla
  • Rose-crowned Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus regina
  • Silver-capped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus richardsii
  • Grey-green Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus purpuratus
  • Makatea Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus chalcurus
  • Atoll Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus coralensis
  • Xarxa-bellied Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus greyii
  • Rapa Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus huttoni
  • White-capped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus dupetithouarsii
  • Xarxa-moustached Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus mercierii
  • Henderson Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus insularis
  • Coroneted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus coronulatus
  • Beautiful Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus pulchellus
  • Blue-capped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus monacha
  • White-bibbed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus rivoli
  • Yellow-bibbed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus solomonensis
  • Claret-breasted Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus viridis
  • White-headed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus eugeniae
  • Orange-bellied Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus iozonus
  • Knob-billed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus insolitus
  • Grey-headed Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus hyogaster
  • Carunculated Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus granulifrons
  • Black-naped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus melanospila
  • Dwarf Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus nanus
  • Negres Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus arcanus
  • Orange Dove, Ptilinopus victor
  • Golden Dove, Ptilinopus luteovirens
  • Whistling Dove, Ptilinopus layardi
  • Cloven-feathered Dove, Drepanoptila holosericea

Gènere Alectroenas blue pigeons

  • Madagascar Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas madagascariensis
  • Comoro Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas sganzini
  • Seychelles Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas pulcherrima
  • Mauritius Blue Pigeon, Alectroenas nitidissima (extinct)
  • Rodrigues Pigeon Alectroenas rodericana (extinct)

Gènere Ducula imperial pigeons

Pichón verde imperial.
Pichón verd imperial.
  • Pink-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula poliocephala
  • White-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula forsteni
  • Mindoro Imperial Pigeon, Ducula mindorensis
  • Grey-headed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula radiata
  • Grey-necked Imperial Pigeon, Ducula carola
  • Green Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aenea
  • White-eyed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula perspicillata
  • Blue-tailed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula concinna
  • Pacific Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pacifica
  • Micronesian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula oceanica
  • Polynesian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula aurorae
  • Nukuhiva Imperial Pigeon, Ducula galeata
  • Xarxa-knobbed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rubricera
  • Spice Imperial Pigeon, Ducula myristicivora
  • Purple-tailed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rufigaster
  • Cinnamon-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula basilica
  • Finsch's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula finschii
  • Shinning Imperial Pigeon, Ducula chalconota
  • Island Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pistrinaria
  • Pink-headed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula rosacea
  • Christmas Imperial Pigeon, Ducula whartoni
  • Grey Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pickeringii
  • Peale's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula latrans
  • Chestnut-bellied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula brenchleyi
  • Vanuatu Imperial Pigeon, Ducula bakeri
  • New Caledonian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula goliath
  • Pinon's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula pinon
  • Bismarck Imperial Pigeon, Ducula melanochroa
  • Collared Imperial Pigeon, Ducula mullerii
  • Zoe's Imperial Pigeon, Ducula zoeae
  • Mountain Imperial Pigeon, Ducula badia
  • Dark-backed Imperial Pigeon, Ducula lacernulata
  • Timor Imperial Pigeon, Ducula cineracea
  • Pied Imperial Pigeon, Ducula bicolor
  • Torresian Imperial Pigeon, Ducula spilorrhoa
  • White Imperial Pigeon, Ducula luctuosa

Gènere Lopholaimus

  • Topknot Pigeon, Lopholaimus antarcticus

Gènere Hemiphaga

Gènere Cryptophaps

  • Sombre Pigeon, Cryptophaps poecilorrhoa

Gènere Gymnophaps, mountain pigeons

  • Papuan Mountain Pigeon, Gymnophaps albertisii
  • Long-tailed Mountain Pigeon, Gymnophaps mada
  • Pale Mountain Pigeon, Gymnophaps solomonensis

[editar] Referències

  • A molecular phylogeny of the dove genera Streptopelia and Columba; Auk 118, 4 (2001): 874-887

[editar] Vegi's també

[editar] Enllaços externs

[[ast:Palomba]